A study by the Women's Health Initiative showed that hormone replacement therapy — both solely estrogen and estrogen-and-progestin — had significant risks. It increased the risk of breast cancer, stroke and blood clots and did not, as predicted, lower the risk of heart disease. Given the danger, hormone replacement therapy should be prescribed on a case-by-case basis. It is currently approved for postmenopausal symptoms, though women who do start hormone replacement therapy are encouraged to try the smallest dose for the shortest amount of time, according to the Food and Drug Administration. Only women with a severe risk of osteoporosis who cannot take non-estrogen therapies should be considered for using hormone replacement therapy preventatively.
In romantic love, when two people have sex , oxytocin is released, which helps bond the relationship. According to researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, the hormone oxytocin has been shown to be "associated with the ability to maintain healthy interpersonal relationships and healthy psychological boundaries with other people." When it is released during orgasm, it begins creating an emotional bond -- the more sex, the greater the bond. Oxytocin is also associated with mother/infant bonding, uterine contractions during labor in childbirth and the "let down" reflex necessary for breastfeeding.
Among the Sioux, the Winkte served much the same function, and individuals could assume the complete role of their preferred gender. Physical females lived as male warriors, and had wives, while physical males lived their lives completely as women. In Sioux society no special magic was associated with this, it was just considered a way of correcting a mistake of nature. Winkte would also perform primitive reassignment operations of a sort, and history records the process used by physical males: riding for days on a special hard saddle to crush the testicles and thus effectively castrate the individual.