Blinding : the process of preventing one or more of patients, clinicians, investigators, and data analysts from knowing whether individual patients are receiving the investigational intervention(s) or the control (or standard) intervention(s) in a clinical trial. (Also known as masking.) Blinding is intended to eliminate the possibility that knowledge of which intervention is being received will affect patient outcomes, investigator behaviors that may affect outcomes, or assessment of outcomes. Blinding is not always practical (. when comparing surgery to drug treatment), but it should be used whenever it is possible and compatible with optimal patient care. The terms “single-blinded,” “double-blinded,” and “triple-blinded” refer to which parties are blinded, ., one or more of patients, investigators, and data analysts; however, these terms are used inconsistently and the specific parties who are blinded in a trial should be identified.
Unlike the other major philosophical lights of his era, and despite having written more than any of them, Leibniz produced no magnum opus . He seemed most at home in dialogue, in correspondence, and in controversy. The Discourse on Metaphysics and Monadology are his most commonly studied works in metaphysics. Scholars disagree about the extent to which the two works are in accord, but they together provide a solid grounding in Leibniz’s thought. The Theodicy is a classic of philosophical theology and the New Essays provides the fullest account of Leibniz’s epistemology. This article will summarize Leibniz’s philosophy mainly as it is presented in these works. It would be a mistake, however, to think that one can get a full picture of Leibniz’s interests from these works and the reader is encouraged to consult the many excellent edited selections of Leibniz’s texts.