Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (referred to as androstanolone or stanolone when used medically) can also be used in place of testosterone as an androgen. The availability of DHT is limited; it is not available in the United States or Canada, for instance, but it is available in certain European countries, including the United Kingdom , France , Spain , Belgium , Italy , and Luxembourg .  DHT is available in formulations including topical gel, buccal or sublingual tablets, and as esters in oil for intramuscular injection.  Relative to testosterone, and similarly to many synthetic AAS, DHT has the potential advantages of not being locally potentiated in so-called androgenic tissues that express 5α-reductase (as DHT is already 5α-reduced) and of not being aromatized into an estrogen (it is not a substrate for aromatase).
We included 296 RRT-treated critically ill patients. Of 283 patients with complete data on fluid balance, 76 (%) patients had fluid overload. The median (interquartile range) time from ICU admission to RRT initiation was 14 ( to ) hours. The 90-day mortality rate of the whole cohort was 116 of 296 (%; 95% confidence interval to %). The crude 90-day mortality of patients with or without fluid overload was 45 of 76 (%) vs. 65 of 207 (%), P < . In logistic regression, fluid overload was associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality (odds ratio ) after adjusting for disease severity, time of RRT initiation, initial RRT modality, and sepsis. Of the 168 survivors with data on RRT use at 90 days, 34 (%, 95% CI to %) were still dependent on RRT.